Distillation Engineering


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Descripción

Partial Table of Contents





I. The Thermal Separation of Liquids





II. Thermodynamics of Mixtures


1. Definitions and Relationships


A. Separability of a Liquid Mixture


B. Partial Pressures in Vapor Mixtures


C. Evaporation of Liquid Mixtures


2. Types of Mixtures


A. Ideal Binary Mixtures


B. Nonideal Binary Mixtures


C. Ideal Multicomponent Mixtures


D. Nonideal Multicomponent Mixtures





III. Continuous Rectifiers


1. Mode of Operations


2. Operating Lines


A. Enrichment Line


B. The Stripping Line


3. Stepwise Separation in Rectifiers


A. Theoretical Plates for Separation of Binaries


B. The Reflux Ratio in the Separation of Binaries


C. Multicomponent Mixtures


4. Column Diameter and Column Throughput


5. Heat Requirements





IV. The Batch Still


1. Operation


2. Operating Line and Separation Steps


3. Column Diameter, Column Throughput, and Heat Requirements


4. Time for Separation and Related Variables at Constant

Product Concentration


A. Molar Vapor Load Constant in Time


B. Heat Requirement Constant in Time


5. Separation Time for Variable Heating Area





V. The Semicontinuous Still


1. Operation


2. Finding the Operating Lines, the Separation Steps, the

Column Load, the Column: Size, and the Heat Demand





VI. Engineering Data, Optimization of Costs, and Selection of Column Internals


1. General


A. Packing Types


B. Plates and Trays


2. Designs and Functions


A. Packed Towers


B. Plate Columns


3. Evaluation of Rectifying Columns and Best Mode of Operation


A. Evaluating and Calculations, Separating Effect,

Pressure Loss, Load, Specific Column Volume, and Specific Column Cost


B. Numerical Evaluation for Packed Towers


C. Quantitative Evaluation for Plate-Type Columns


D. Packed Columns versus Tray Columns-Operational

Features and Cost


E. Special Designs for Vacuum Operation


4. Tests of Full-Size Tower Internals





VII. Optimum Separation


1. Optimization of Simple Columns


A. The Theory and Its Application


B. Quantitative Evaluation


2. Optimization of Multiple Columns


A. Duplex Columns: Number of Theoretical Steps, Reflux

Ratios, and Vapor Loads


B. Vapor Loads of Multiple Columns Subdivided Because of

Limited Height


C. Optimizing Duplex Rectifiers for Minimum Pressure Loss


3. Optimum Operation of Combined Columns of Different Types

Under Special Consideration


A. Parallel Arrangement


B. Series Arrangement


4. Specialized Operations


A. Specialized Hookups and their Calculation


B. Rectification in Straight Stripping Columns


C. Rectification in Straight Enriching Columns


D. Direct Heating of Columns


E. Saving Heat in Rectification





VIII. Detail Planning of Separating Columns


1. General Viewpoints in the Selection of Column Types


2. Packed Columns


Columns


3. Special Packings


4. Plate-Type Columns


5. Pressure Losses in Rectification Columns





IX. Partial Distillation


1. Separation of Liquids by Continuous Partial Distillation


2. Separation of Liquids by Discontinuous Partial Distillation





X. Partial Condensation


1. Partial Condensation in Dephlegmators


2. Partial Countercurrent Direct Condensation in Columns







XI. Laboratory Columns and Pilot Plants


1. Distillation Columns with Miniature Size Packing


2. Transferring Data Gained From Semi-industrial Units to Full-Scale







XII. Distillation in Fine and High Vacuum


1. Molecular Distillation


2. Thin-Film Distillation


3. Mechanism of Separation





XIII. Components of a Separation Plant


1. Internal Components


2. Heat Exchangers


3. Pumps


4. Measuring and Controls





XIV. Use of Computers





XV. Distillation and Environmental Protection





XVI. Outlook





Bibliography


Symbols and Units


Glossary


Index

Detalles del producto

Editorial
Chemical Publishing Co Inc.,U.S.
Fecha de Publicación
Idioma
Inglés
Tipo
Tapa dura
EAN/UPC
9780820602158

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