Lectures on Solar Physics

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TheideafortheselectureseriesaroseataWorkshoponsolarphysicswhichwas heldattheInterUniversityCentreforAstronomyandAstrophysics(IUCAA), Pune/IndiainDecember2000. ThisWorkshopaimedtopresentacompreh- siveandup-to-dateoverviewofsolarphysicsforinterestedstudentsandfaculty inotherbranchesofastrophysics. Itwasintendedtoshowthatthis?eld,c- centratingonourcloseststar,isavitalandexciting?eldofresearch. Forthis purposeanumberofcomprehensivereviewswereorganisedwhichassumedthat theaudiencewouldhaveonlyabasicphysicsbackgroundbuthadnoprior knowledgeaboutsolarphysics. Thesetoflecturescoveredtopicsrangingfrom thesolarcoretotheconvectionzone,thephotosphere,chromosphere,andcorona andextendingtothesolarwindintheinterplanetarymedium DuringandaftertheWorkshoptherewasmuchenthusiasmforthisform ofpresentationanditwasfeltthattheselectures,augmentedbyincludingthe latestresearch?ndingsinthe?eld,wouldbebene?cialtoamuchlargeraudience. Thustheplanforthisbookoriginatedwhichcouldthenberealisedthanksto thepublishers,Springer-Verlag. Thereare9articlesbasedonthelecturesgivenattheWorkshop. Thearticle byChitreon"OverviewofSolarPhysics"givesanintroductiontothewhole varietyofphenomenaofsolarphysics,theproblemsandtheirsolutionsand salientresults. Thearticleon"InstrumentationandObservationaltechniques relatedtoSolarPhysics"byBhatnagardescribesindetailtheprinciplesof- larinstrumentationnormallyusedtotakesimplewhitelight,monochromatic andspectroscopicobservations. Practicalmethodstomeasureimportantbasic parameters,likearea,positionandtheclassi?cationofsunspotsaredescribed indetail. Antia'sarticleon"SolarInteriorandSeismology"describesthesolar interior,thetechniqueofhelioseismologyandhowthisnewtechniqueallowsa determinationoftheinternalstructureanddynamicsoftheSunandconstrains theoriesofstellarstructure,evolutionandangularmomentumtransport. - bastha'sarticleon"TheActiveandExplosiveSun"givesanoverviewofhighly time-dependentphenomenainthephotosphere,chromosphereandcoronaofthe Sunandprovidessometheoreticalmodelsofthesolar?ares. Hasan'sarticle on"MagneticFluxTubesandActivityontheSun"discussesthegeneration, storageandemergenceofmagnetic?eldsintheformofsmall-scale?uxtubes andexaminestheirroleinheatingofthechromosphere. Ventakrishan'sar- cleon"SolarMagneticFields"givesatheoreticaloverviewofthegeneration VI Preface ofmagnetic?eldsbythedynamomechanism,thegeneralmagnetic?eldtop- ogyandhowthemagnetic?eldsaremeasured. Ulmschneider'scontributionon "ThePhysicsofChromospheresandCoronae"discusseswhyallstarslikethe Sunhavehotouterchromosphericandcoronallayers. Itidenti?estheheating mechanismsanddynamicalprocesseswhichtakeplacebothinthepresenceand absenceofmagnetic?elds. ThearticlebyDwivedion"TheSolarCorona"gives ageneraloverviewofthesolarcorona,howitisobservedandwhatthephy- calprocessesleadingtoitsformationare. FinallyManoharan'scontributionon "TheSolarWind"describesthegenerationandmeasurementofthesolarwind derivedfrominsituobservationsbyspacecraftandinterplanetaryscintillation studies. Wehopethatbyreadingtheselectures,interestedpeople,amateurs,graduate andpostgraduatestudentswillbemotivatedtotakeupsolarphysicsasanarea ofresearch,andshareourexcitementaboutthewondersofourneareststar- theSun. WearethankfultoT. PadmanabhanandtheInterUniversityCentrefor AstronomyandAstrophysics,PunefororganisingandhostingthisWorkshop onSolarPhysics. Mumbai,Udaipur,Heidelberg H. M. Antia February2003 A. Bhatnagar P. Ulmschneider ListofContributors AshokAmbastha S. S. Hasan Udaipur Solar Observatory Indian Institute of Astrophysics Physical Research Laboratory Bangalore560034,India P. O. Box No. 198 [email protected] ernet. in Udaipur313001,India [email protected] ernet. in P. K. Manoharan Radio Astronomy Centre H. M. Antia Tata Institute Tata Institute of Fundamental Research of Fundamental Research P. O. Box 8 Homi Bhabha Road Udhagamandalam (Ooty) 643001, Mumbai400005,India India [email protected] res. in [email protected] ernet. in ArvindBhatnagar Udaipur Solar Observatory P. Ulmschneider Physical Research Laboratory Institut fur TheideafortheselectureseriesaroseataWorkshoponsolarphysicswhichwas heldattheInterUniversityCentreforAstronomyandAstrophysics(IUCAA), Pune/IndiainDecember2000. ThisWorkshopaimedtopresentacompreh- siveandup-to-dateoverviewofsolarphysicsforinterestedstudentsandfaculty inotherbranchesofastrophysics. Itwasintendedtoshowthatthis?eld,c- centratingonourcloseststar,isavitalandexciting?eldofresearch. Forthis purposeanumberofcomprehensivereviewswereorganisedwhichassumedthat theaudiencewouldhaveonlyabasicphysicsbackgroundbuthadnoprior knowledgeaboutsolarphysics. Thesetoflecturescoveredtopicsrangingfrom thesolarcoretotheconvectionzone,thephotosphere,chromosphere,andcorona andextendingtothesolarwindintheinterplanetarymedium DuringandaftertheWorkshoptherewasmuchenthusiasmforthisform ofpresentationanditwasfeltthattheselectures,augmentedbyincludingthe latestresearch?ndingsinthe?eld,wouldbebene?cialtoamuchlargeraudience. Thustheplanforthisbookoriginatedwhichcouldthenberealisedthanksto thepublishers,Springer-Verlag. Thereare9articlesbasedonthelecturesgivenattheWorkshop. Thearticle byChitreon"OverviewofSolarPhysics"givesanintroductiontothewhole varietyofphenomenaofsolarphysics,theproblemsandtheirsolutionsand salientresults. Thearticleon"InstrumentationandObservationaltechniques relatedtoSolarPhysics"byBhatnagardescribesindetailtheprinciplesof- larinstrumentationnormallyusedtotakesimplewhitelight,monochromatic andspectroscopicobservations. Practicalmethodstomeasureimportantbasic parameters,likearea,positionandtheclassi?cationofsunspotsaredescribed indetail. Antia'sarticleon"SolarInteriorandSeismology"describesthesolar interior,thetechniqueofhelioseismologyandhowthisnewtechniqueallowsa determinationoftheinternalstructureanddynamicsoftheSunandconstrains theoriesofstellarstructure,evolutionandangularmomentumtransport. - bastha'sarticleon"TheActiveandExplosiveSun"givesanoverviewofhighly time-dependentphenomenainthephotosphere,chromosphereandcoronaofthe Sunandprovidessometheoreticalmodelsofthesolar?ares. Hasan'sarticle on"MagneticFluxTubesandActivityontheSun"discussesthegeneration, storageandemergenceofmagnetic?eldsintheformofsmall-scale?uxtubes andexaminestheirroleinheatingofthechromosphere. Ventakrishan'sar- cleon"SolarMagneticFields"givesatheoreticaloverviewofthegeneration VI Preface ofmagnetic?eldsbythedynamomechanism,thegeneralmagnetic?eldtop- ogyandhowthemagnetic?eldsaremeasured. Ulmschneider'scontributionon "ThePhysicsofChromospheresandCoronae"discusseswhyallstarslikethe Sunhavehotouterchromosphericandcoronallayers. Itidenti?estheheating mechanismsanddynamicalprocesseswhichtakeplacebothinthepresenceand absenceofmagnetic?elds. ThearticlebyDwivedion"TheSolarCorona"gives ageneraloverviewofthesolarcorona,howitisobservedandwhatthephy- calprocessesleadingtoitsformationare. FinallyManoharan'scontributionon "TheSolarWind"describesthegenerationandmeasurementofthesolarwind derivedfrominsituobservationsbyspacecraftandinterplanetaryscintillation studies. Wehopethatbyreadingtheselectures,interestedpeople,amateurs,graduate andpostgraduatestudentswillbemotivatedtotakeupsolarphysicsasanarea ofresearch,andshareourexcitementaboutthewondersofourneareststar- theSun. WearethankfultoT. PadmanabhanandtheInterUniversityCentrefor AstronomyandAstrophysics,PunefororganisingandhostingthisWorkshop onSolarPhysics. Mumbai,Udaipur,Heidelberg H. M. Antia February2003 A. Bhatnagar P. Ulmschneider ListofContributors AshokAmbastha S. S. Hasan Udaipur Solar Observatory Indian Institute of Astrophysics Physical Research Laboratory Bangalore560034,India P. O. Box No. 198 [email protected] ernet. in Udaipur313001,India [email protected] ernet. in P. K. Manoharan Radio Astronomy Centre H. M. Antia Tata Institute Tata Institute of Fundamental Research of Fundamental Research P. O. Box 8 Homi Bhabha Road Udhagamandalam (Ooty) 643001, Mumbai400005,India India [email protected] res. in [email protected] ernet. in ArvindBhatnagar Udaipur Solar Observatory P. Ulmschneider Physical Research Laboratory Institut fur .. Theoretische Astrophysik P. O. Box No. 198 Univ. Heidelberg Udaipur313001,India Tiergartenstr. 15 [email protected] ernet. in 69121Heidelberg,Germany [email protected] uni-heidelberg. de S. M. Chitre Department of Physics University of Mumbai P. Venkatakrishnan Mumbai400098,India Udaipur Solar Observatory [email protected] com Physical Research Laboratory P. O. Box No. 198 BholaN. Dwivedi Udaipur313001,India Department of Applied Physics [email protected] ernet. in Institute of Technology Banaras Hindu University Varanasi221005,India [email protected] ernet. in TableofContents OverviewofSolarPhysics S. M. Chitre...1 1 Introduction...1 2 CompositionandStructureoftheSun...3 2. 1 EquationsofStellarStructure...4 2. 2 TheStandardSolarModel...7 3 ProbesoftheSun'sInterior...10 3. 1 SolarNeutrinoProblem...

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9783540015284

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